### Transportation Engineering-India

Transportation Engineering is the study of the development, planning, designing, material study and management, and pavement design. Along with this traffic engineering and maintenance are also studied.
Transportation Engineering in India can be studied in 5 parts:
1. Development & Planning
2. Geometric Design
3. Material Study
4. Pavement Design
5. Traffic and Maintenance

### 1. Developing & Planning

Indian Transportation development and planning date back to 1927 where the committee was formed called "Jayakar Committee" which gave its recommendation in February 1928.
This Committee proposed few steps for large-scale change in India's highway development.
• Consider Road Development as a matter of National Interest.
• Tax on petrol and Funds should be colled=cted with forming Central Road Fund in 1928.
• Form an Advisory body called "Indian Road Congress" in 1934, a technical body to pass plans.
• Form a research and development organization called "Central Road Research Institution" in 1950.
After this, there was a 20-year road plan executed starting from 1943 which plans and develops roads for the next 20 years.
• First 20-year plan 1943- Nagpur
• Second 20-year plan 1961-Bombay (Finished 2 years early)
• Third 20-year plan 1991-Lucknow
1. Rectangle & Block Pattern
2. Star & Block Pattern
3. Star & Circular Pattern
4. Star & Grid Pattern
5. Hexagonal Road Pattern

### 2. Highway Geometric Design

This consist component such as:
• Cross Slope or Camber
Given by, y=2x^2/n.W
• Stopping Sight Distance
Given by, 0.278V.t + V^2/254.(f∓S%)
• Overtaking Sight Distance
Given by, d1=0.278Vb.t
d2=b+2s
d3=0.278Vc.T
• Overtaking Zone
OSD=d1+d2 for one-way traffic.
or
OSD=d1+d2+d3 for two-way traffic.
• Design of Superelevation
Given by, e+f=V^2/127R
Limiting e till 0.07 and f till 0.15.
• Transition Curves
Here we have three formula,
1. L=0.0215V^3/CR
where C=80/75+V

2. L=2.7V^2/R for Plain and Rolling Terrain
or
L=V^2/R for Hilly Area

3. L=150x for Plan & Rolling Terrain
=100x for Built-up Area
=60x for Hilly Area
where x=(w+E)e or x=(w+E)e/2
Grade Compensation=(30+R/R) if R<45
=75/R if R>45
• Vertical and Horizontal Curve

### 3. Material Study

The material such as soil, aggregates, bitumen cement, and concrete which required to be in order with Indian Standards.
Test on Soil and Aggregate:
1. Group Index of Soils (G.I.)
G.I.=0.2a+0.01bd+0.005ca
where a=(P-35)≯ 40
b=(P-15)≯ 40
c=(Wl-40)≯ 20
d=(Ip-10)≯ 20
0≤G.I.≤20

2. Plate Bearing Test
k=P/0.125
ks=k.Ps/P

3. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test

4. Test on Road Aggregate
• Aggregate Test
• Shape Test
• Los Angeles Abrasion
• Aggregate Impact
Now test on Bitumen:
• Penetration Test
• Ductility Test
• Float Test
• Viscosity Test
• Solubility Test
• Softening Point Test
• Spot Test
Marshall Method Bituminous Mix Design:
• Theoretical Specific Gravity
• Bulk Specific Gravity
• Perfect Air Void
• Percent Volume of Bitumen

### 4. Pavement Design

There are two types of pavement,
1. Flexible Pavement
Method of Flexible Pavement
• Group Index Method
• CBR Method
• Triaxial Method
• Mcleod Method
2. Rigid Pavement
• Determination of dimensions
• Determination of stress
• Design of Concrete Joint

### 5. Traffic and Maintenance

Traffic engineering consists of many methods of calculating and planning roads accordingly.
Maintenance of highway is also classified in two parts according to two Pavement.

### Great Man-Made River (GMR)

Libya's Great Man Made River: The Great Man-Made River in Libya is one of the most ambitious Civil Engineering Project in history of mankind.  In the year 1953, the Libya Government found out not only vast oil reserves but also vast quantity of fresh water locked under the strata, most of the water was trapped around 7000-30000 years ago which is divided in 4 different basins. The first basin is named Kufra basin which is neat Egypt Border which covers almost 35000 sq kilometer which is quite deep around 2000 m deep. The other basin is in Sirte Basin which cover 10000 sq kilometer, third in Murzuk Basin and the last in Jabal Fezzan Basin covering 4800 sq kilometers area.  The GMR project will be used to transfer water to North of the country to provide water for irrigation purpose for more than 6 million  people. This will be a changing point  for Libya and the Colonel Muammar Gaddafi called it the Eighth Wonder of World. The work started in 1984 of the project and estimated to be