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Dams :

Dams are built to stop the flow of water and control the discharge. This barrier holds back water and raises its level on the upstream side. There are many dams that have a different type of function t hold and use the water of the upstream side. The different types and uses are:
  • Gravity Dam
  • Buttress Dam
  • Arch Dam
  • Embankment Dam
  • Composite Dam

This types of dams help in a different area and are also created for the following objectives:

  1. Generation of Hydropower energy
  2. Providing water for irrigation facilities
  3. Fish farming
  4. Fighting Droughts
  5.  Controlling Floods
  6. Water for Domestic Use

Gravity Dam :

Gravity Dam and its details
Gravity Dam

This is a solid concrete structure having a triangular profile to withstand against the precalculated volume of water by virtue of its weight. 
Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River, India.

Buttress Dam:

Buttress Dam and its details
Buttress Dam
This is a modified form of gravity dam. There is a thin concrete slab which is supported by the downstream side. There are multiple reinforced columns to support the dams. 
Since it has a relatively thin structure it is considered a cost-saving method.
Also Read: Bridges Types Bridges Types

  Arch Dam :

Arch Dam and its details
Arch Dam
This is an Arch Shaped solid structure made up of the concrete also they are designed such a way that the thrust force acting on the dam is transmitted to the side of the dam which they are reinforced into the wall or mountain. The thrust acts as a compressive force on the arch and thus it transmits to the sides.
There are two types:
  • Constant Radius Arch
  • Variable Radius Arch
We can see this type of dam in a narrow valley.
An Arch dam which has curvature both in horizontal and vertical alignment is often called a CUPOLA Dam.
The Hoover Dam is a combination of both Gravity Dam as well as Arch Dam.

Embankment Dam :

Embankment Dam and its details
Embankment Dam
These are the nonrigid structure which is built over wide valleys with varying foundations. The main advantage of this dam is that it can be constructed on week foundation and the impervious core is placed in the middle of the embankment body.

Composite Dam :

Composite Dam and its details
Composite Dam
Composite dams are a combination of one or more dam types where one portion is an embankment or gravity dam and another portion is used for power generation being a buttress or arch.
A great example of this is The Three Gorges Dam in China. Know More Here

Three Gorges Dam which is currently the largest dam in world
Three Gorges Dam


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